IFLA Library Reference Model (LRM)

The model

IFLA LRM is a high-level conceptual reference model developed within an entity-relationship modelling framework. It is the consolidation of the separately developed IFLA conceptual models: FRBR, FRAD, FRSAD.

IFLA LRM was developed to resolve inconsistencies between the three separate models. Every user task, entity, attribute and relationship from the original three models was examined, definitions had to be revised, but also some remodeling was required in order to develop a meaningful consolidation. The result is a single, streamlined, and logically consistent model that covers all aspects of bibliographic data and that at the same time brings the modelling up-to-date with current conceptual modelling practices.

IFLA LRM was designed to be used in linked data environments and to support and promote the use of bibliographic data in linked data environments.

IFLA LRM [PDF – English – 2MB]
August 2017 as amended and corrected through December 2017
Revised after world-wide review
Endorsed by the IFLA Professional Committee


Additional explanatory documentation

These documents do not form part of the model definition but are provided for explanatory purposes:

  1. IFLA LRM Modifications and Errata through December 2017. Significant modifications to the approved IFLA LRM text dated August 2017.
  2. Summary of changes since the world-wide review in 2016. A world-wide review of the model was held during the first half of 2016. Many comments were received. The comments were analyzed and led to changes in the model. This document lists the significant changes in the model between the version released for world-wide review and the final version.
  3. Explanations of recurring issues. During world-wide review, there were some points that recurred in comments from different individuals or organizations. This document explains some recurring points on modeling made during the world-wide review.
  4. Transition mapping document [full document, 84 p.] [overview, 4 p.]. The transition mapping document maps each user task, entity, attribute and relationship from the original three models to the new IFLA LRM. The document demonstrates how IFLA-LRM preserves the essential nature of the three models. For applications that are based on the original models forward to LRM, the mapping will facilitate transitioning forward to IFLA LRM. This mapping is also intended to facilitate the alignment of the namespace to be created for LRM within the existing FR namespaces in the IFLA.info domain.

Standards, Cataloguing, FRBR LRM

Dernière mise à jour: 18 janvier 2021